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Anghiary Armstudy Artillery Battle Blue Head Blue Sforza Cari Man Coition Dragonhead Eddy Female
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This is a copy of the original Signature of Leonardo da Vinci
After Leonardo's death in 1519 Francesco Melzi, his favourite pupil, brought many of his manuscripts and drawings back to Italy.
This is confirmed by a note written by an agent of the Duke of Ferrara, dated 1523, referring to: "those little books by Leonardo about the anatomy, and many other interesting things", a fact mentioned also by an early sixteenth century source, the "Anonimo Gaddiano", in regard to the inheritance left by Leonardo to Melzi, which included: "cash, clothing, books, drawings, painting instruments and portraits". Fortunately, of Leonardo's vast output, over five thousand pages of drawings and notes have come down to us, in his characteristic "mirror-image" hand-writing, running from right to left. But this huge mass of writings, undoubtedly the largest collection of the entire Renaissance, has endured many vicissitudes following Leonardo's death. In fact, Leonardo's manuscripts are today nothing like the way they appeared and were grouped together during his lifetime, or even when they passed into the hands of his faithful disciple, Francesco Melzi.
It was Melzi's heirs who, after his death in 1579, began to scatter the material. Having no idea of their importance, they initially stored Leonardo's drawings and manuscripts in a loft, later giving parts of it away or selling sheets cheaply to friends and collectors.
Codex Arundel Codex Ashburnham Codex Atlanticus Codex Leicester
Codex Forster Codex Madrid
Codex Trivulgianis Codex Flight Birds
Leonardo's output is the epitome of that extraordinary period of human history which was the Italian Renaissance, a period of great cultural advances
and of great projects. Leonardo's output is the expression of the men and women of the time, of what they felt and did, of the machines they built
so that in turn they could build churches, palaces, fortresses; machines for waging war, for work, for the manufacture and trade of all those goods
whose availability was of such great importance to the rulers and their courts. However, more importantly, Leonardo's output bears witness to who
and what he was - a man who was shaped by the loveliest and most stimulating city of the time, Florence, and who embarked upon his own path
of research and drawing up of ideas and plans embracing a multitude of sectors, ranging from hydraulics to mechanics, to flight, to anatomy and
of a Giant Catapult from Leonardo Da Vinci
List of Inventions
Water and Land Machines
E dietro a questi potranno seguire
fanterie assai illese e sanza alcuno impedimiento."
(I shall make covered chariots, that are safe and cannot be assaulted; cars which fear no great numbers when breaking through the ranks of the enemy and its artillery.
Behind them, the infantrymen shall follow, without fearing injury or other impediments).
Cannon with an adjustable elevating
A cannon whose elevation may be adjusted by means of a peg. It is one of the three firearms drawn by Leonardo on the same folio.
Owing to its size, this cannon was destined to be used in field action by infantrymen.
Besides having a light gun-carriage mounted on wheels, this weapon can be adjusted in height by means of a peg blocking system.
The cannon is front-loaded and has a bronze muzzle.
In Leonardo's time, cannons were mostly employed in sieges, both because of their heavy weight and because it took too much time to load them.
For these reasons, they turned out to be of little use on the battlefield, where the troops moved fast.
Leonardo made some alterations, which were to improve their accuracy and rate of fire.
This model shows a different specimen of light artillery: the gun carriage is easy to handle and it has three front-load guns.
To improve firing accuracy, the three guns can be adjusted in height by means of a peg mechanism.
among these, primarily by the deep-sea divers. The instrument was made of iron, had the shape of an overturned U and was provided with a large central screw.
The two legs of the U were secured to two not-adjacent planks of the ship's hull.
The screw was then screwed into the middle plank. Once the screw was tightly secured to the plank, the second handle was turned in order to exert pressure on the
two arms of the hull rammer, which thus broke into the hull and caused the sinking of the ship.
Flying Crossbow sketch
As an engineer and designer of offensive and defensive war machines, Leonardo di not neglect to consider traditional weapons, such as crossbows and catapults.
This crossbow was suggested as a major weapon of war and, in Leonardo's mind, it was to be employed for shooting large arrows against the enemy ranks and create
havoc among them. In order to increase its flexibility and power, the gigantic bow was to be manufactured in several lamellar sections.
The shooting rope was stretched with a mechanical device and was then released by percussion or through the action of a lever.
The six carriage wheels could be inclined, so as to ensure greater firing stability.
Scythed chariotThis is the framework of a scythed chariot. Already in use in Leonardo's day, this type of war machine was dusted down by Leonardo, who conceived of a
few variations on the theme. The wheels of this horse-drawn chariot engage the scythes via gearing.
As Leonardo put it, the scythes were capable of doing harm to friends and enemies alike.
Automatic igniting device
This model testifies to one of the ideas Leonardo developed in order to improve the ignition of firearms.
The device is made up of a coil spring, linked to a wheel above by a chain.
The wheel, rotating, strikes against the flint (on the left) and produces a spark. The trigger is on the right.
Self propelled Car
The machine was designed to perform the stretching, twisting and winding operations simultaneously on three consecutive stretches of thread.
The operations were then repeated as the thread regularly fed into the machine.
Leonardo's winged spindle, which allowed, first for the stretching, twisting and then for the winding of same section of thread, was the basis
for the later development of the continuous spinnin
This instrument is used for measuring the amount of moisture in the air.
More compact in shape and more easily readable than the other hygrometer shown, it is based on the same principle whereby a
hygroscopic substance and wax weigh differently from each other when a variation in the amount of water in the air
Sluice gate hatch
He was fascinated by these waterways and endeavoured to make improvements to the existing system.
One such improvement was an opening and closing mechanism applied to the sluice gates.
It consisted in a hatch provided with a padlock that could be operated from above.
By means of this device, the flow of water in the weir could be reduced or increased, thereby balancing the pressure at the sides
of the sluice gates and making it easier to open them.